When Men Were Men: Masculinity, Power and Identity in Classical Antiquity (Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society)
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When Men Were Men questions the deep-set assumption that men's history speaks and has always spoken for all of us, by exploring the history of classical antiquity as an explicitly masculine story.
With a preface by Sarah Pomeroy, this study employs different methodologies and focuses on a broad range of source materials, periods and places.
athletics festivals. To her chosen body of textual evidence one might want to add those divine rapes of Greek myth that can be read a~ allegories of human conquest of foreign peoples and territories. 8 At a more mundane level, the trope of 'spear-won' (doriktitos) land carried an obvious gendered overdetermination, as erect male spear penetrated yielding female earth: Alexander the Great was therefore doing nothing out of the way in making that symbolism literally explicit as he began his
and present worlus (see Pomeroy 1975, for example, on classical antiquity. recently reprinted as a modern 'classic"). In the first instance. LIN FOXIIALI. scholarly interest was weighted towards women's domestic activities and their roles within the family. Following the discovery of the 'other sex' came the 'revelation· of other sexualities, and the idea that our modern notion of (hctero/homo)sexuality was not necessarily applicable to the classical past. Though women were still at the
1995, 134; cr. 1.6. 21 Pol. 4. 1289 b ~6-9. 4. 1297 b 12-28,6. 1321 a 5-25. 22 Time. 8. 65. J. Knloikngathoi: 8. 48. 6. 23 The pride wilh which Anthemion son of Diphih1!' publicly celebrated and commemorated his rise from the thetic class lo that of the Hippcis (Cavalrymen) 66 TilE MACII/SMO 01' THE ATI!EN!AN EMPIRE with a statue and an epigram seems to indicate a strong negative attitude to thctic status: '!Aristotle. Co~r.uitmioll of the Athenians 7. 4. with Rhodes 1981. 24 Euripides,
the olher sex. and to make no distinction belween themselves and women who ply, and will punish them in avenging names before the eyes of the populace as the hateful enormity of their offence deserves, dragging them out from (shameful to say) all the brothels • so that all may understand that the host of a tnan·s mind ought to be sacrosanct to all. and not without the supreme penalty has someone sought aner an alien sex. who shamefully lost his own' (Col/. S. 3. 2 Codex Tlreodosianus 9. 7. 6 (AD
the body in cmtiquity will maintain this typically undrocenlric. cxtcrnalizl!d sepanninn nr mind. bolly and emotions. Within the fie1d of chtssics and ancient hi~Lory. the current scholurly interest in mapped and elaborated treatments of the body muy rcnt."Ct the post-modern ae~thetic of surface. while perpetuuting. a separation from the body and the identity of the individuaL The papyri from Rnman Egypt are a useful corpus of data lhr avoiding this perpetuation binarism and duality. Papyri an!