The Marx-Engels Reader (Second Edition)

The Marx-Engels Reader (Second Edition)

Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Robert C. Tucker

Language: English

Pages: 788

ISBN: 039309040X

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This revised and enlarged edition of the leading anthology provides the essential writings of Marx and Engels--those works necessary for an introduction to Marxist thought and ideology.

Communism: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall

Stalin: History in an Hour

China and the World since 1945: An International History (Making of the Contemporary World)


















bourgeois society. Having achieved in these papers a sketch of his entire world-view, he set the manuscripts aside but in a few years time returned to the task he had posed for himself. Wage Labour and Capital, written in 1847, was a sort of prospectus for the full-scale Kritik of political economy that he was determined to write. In 1859 he published a not very successful beginning of the work under the title A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Meanwhile, in 1857-58 he had

discovered in the Christian world, in the l;lst century. It is not an innate idea; on the contrary,it is acquired in a struggle against the historical traditions in which man has been educated up to the present time. The rights of man are not, therefore, a gift of nature, nor a legacy from past history, but the reward of a struggle against the accident of birth and against the privileges which history has hitherto transmitted from generation to generation. They are the results of culture, and

sense-perception in the twofold form both of sensuous consciousness and of sensuous need-that is, only when science proceeds from nature-is it true science. All history is the preparation for "man" to become the object of sensuous consciousness, and for the needs of "man as man" to become [natural, sensuous1 needs. History itself is a real part of natural his- Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 91 tory-of nature's coming to be man. Natural science will in time subsume under itself

with Its Properties, and Deception. (c) Force and Understanding, Appearance and the Super-sensible \Vorld. II. Self-Consciousness. The Truth of Certainty of Self. (a) Independence and Dependence of Self-Consciousness; Lordship and Bondage. (b) Freedom of Self·Consciousness: Stoicism, Scepticism, the Unhappy Consciousness. III. Reason. Reason's Certainty and Reason's Truth. (a) Observation as a Process of Reason. Observation of Nature and of SelfConsciousness. (b) Realization of Rational

expression reflected in the realm of knowledge and thought. Instead, the real estrangement-that which appears real-is from its innermost, hidden nature (a nature only brought to light by philosophy) nothing but the manifestation of the estrangement of the real essence of man, of selfconsciousness. The science which comprehends this is therefore called Phenomenology. All re-appropriation of the estranged objec~ ti\'e essence appears, therefore, as a process of incorporation into

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