The Changing Face of China: From Mao to Market
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Where is China heading in the 21st century? Can its Communist Party survive or is it being challenged by growing inequality and unrest? Will the US and China cooperate or compete in a dangerous future? Will China's economic boom be brought to a halt by environmental catastrophe? In this highly readable account, John Gittings provides the essential information to help answer these vital questions for the world.
In the 60 years since Mao Zedong took the road to victory, China has undergone not one but two revolutions. The first swept away the old corrupt society and sought to build a 'spotless' new socialism behind closed doors; the second since Mao's death has focused on an economic agenda which accepts the goals of global capitalism. From Mao to the global market, Gittings charts this complex but epic tale and concludes with some hard questions for the future.
Poyang Lake, Jiangxi province, 2002. 14. Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, National People’s Congress (NPC), 14 March 2004. © Xinhua Photo/Li Xueren. All photographs taken by the author, except for nos. 2, 3, 8 & 14. This page intentionally left blank 1 Introduction The new ‘New China’ After a period following the Transition to Ownership by the Whole People, the Productive Forces of Society will be expanded even more greatly; the Products of Society will become extremely Abundant; Communist
soldiery of heaven’ (tianbing), the Chinese workers and peasants who soared through the high clouds punishing the corrupt and the bad. By the 1960s there was only one hero: the wonder-working Monkey King celebrated in the classic novel Journey to the West. Monkey, wrote Mao in a 1961 poem much quoted later by Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution, ‘wrathfully swung his massive cudgel, and the jade-like ﬁrmament was cleared of dust’. Mao was once observed by the British writer Robert Payne
After many adventures in which more than once he saved his master from wandering into death or defeat, Monkey with his companions ascended into heaven and was rewarded with the title of Buddha Victorious in Strife. During the Cultural Revolution these metaphors of struggle became the everyday language of wall-posters and manifestos. The targets of the Red 60 the changing face of china Guards were those monsters and demons—the ‘capitalist-roaders’—who, lurking in the shadows behind foolish
gains, they feel it’s time to settle down and feather their cosy nests. As for exercising all-round dictatorship over the bourgeoisie, as for going on after the ﬁrst step on the 10,000 li march, sorry, let others do the job; here is my stop and I must get oﬀ the bus. We would like to oﬀer a piece of advice to these comrades: it’s dangerous to stop half-way! The bourgeoisie is beckoning to you. Catch up with the ranks and continue to advance! Deng regarded these documents correctly as a
Party secretariat, described the selﬂessness of the leadership (and in particular of his patron, Secretary-General Hu Yaobang) in these terms: The central leaders working on the front line handle a host of things every day as regards domestic and international aﬀairs, but they still keep in contact with the broad masses of the people through diﬀerent channels. Our leaders do not have spare time and a day oﬀ is, of course, out of the question. Moreover, in order to read documents and letters from