The Britannica Guide to Modern China
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Modern China is part of the Britannica Guide Series that offers a comprehensive introduction to the world’s new economic giant. The Britannica Guides series offers an essential introduction to many of the key issues of our time. Clear, accurate, and meticulously researched, the series gives both background and analysis for when you need to know for sure what is really happening in the world, whether you are an expert, student, or traveler.
1917 it began to express the iconoclasm of new faculty members at Beijing University (Beida), which Chen had joined as dean of the College of Letters. Beijing University, China's most prestigious institution of higher education, was being transformed by its new chancellor, Cai Yuanpei, who had spent many years in advanced study in Germany. Cai made the university a centre of scholarly research and inspired teaching. The students were quickly swept into the New Culture Movement. A proposal by Hu
forth between the two groups. The radicals gained the upper hand from mid-1973 until mid1974, during which time they whipped up a campaign that used criticism of Lin Biao and Confucius as an allegorical vehicle for attacking Zhou and his policies. By July 1974, THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (1949±2007) 97 however, economic decline and increasing chaos saw a shift back toward Zhou and Deng. With Zhou hospitalized, Deng assumed increasing power from the summer of 1974 through the late fall of 1975.
role of the Public Security (police) forces was cut back substantially. The reformers also tried to make preparations for their own political succession. Deng proved masterful at maintaining a viable coalition among the diverse forces at the top. By the end of 1981 he had succeeded in nudging Hua Guofeng and others of the more-rigid Maoists out of high-level positions. Although he refused to take the top positions for himself, Deng saw his supporters become premier (Zhao Ziyang and then Li Peng)
leadership and ordinary people alike had been proclaiming that their nation was destined to be a major power, one whose economic and political reach would extend into every corner of the world. In the early years of the twenty first century, that hope seemed to be very well founded, and China's influence continues to grow in unexpected quarters, from the deserts of northern Africa to the boardrooms of London and New York. PART 3 THE NATION TODAY This page intentionally left blank 4
(1811±72) pragmatic acceptance of the superiority of Western technology, Kang Youwei's (1858±1927) sweeping recommendation for political reform, and Zhang Zhidong's (1837±1909) desperate, eclectic attempt to save the essence of Confucian learning, which, however, eventually led to the anti-Confucian iconoclasm of the so-called May Fourth Movement in 1919. The triumph of Marxism±Leninism as the official ideology of the People's Republic of China in 1949 relegated Confucian rhetoric to the