Spartans: A New History
Nigel M. Kennell
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Spartans: A New History chronicles the complete history of ancient Sparta from its origins to the end of antiquity.
Helps bridge the gap between the common conceptions of Sparta and what specialists believe and dispute about Spartan history
Applies new techniques, perspectives, and archaeological evidence to the question of what it was to be a Spartan
Takes into account new specialist scholarship and research published in Greek, which is not readily available elsewhere
Places Spartan society into its wider Greek context
Gargaphia spring Geraki: see Geronthrae Geronthrae: conquest of “Dorianization” of excavations at in Hellenistic period Gerousia/Gerontes Assembly and Cleomenes III and as deliberative body election of eligibility for ephors and in Great Rhetra in judicial procedure kings and in legislative procedure in Philopoemen’s settlement in Tyrtaeus' Eunomia, see also Assembly; ephors/ ephorate Gorgo Gortyn Great Rhetra in legislative procedure Plutarch on Rider to Tyrtaeus'
to Delphi, in the hopes that Apollo might provide them with the answer to the question of Demaratus’ paternity. Cleomenes swung into action. Using his powerful connections at Delphi, he induced the Pythia to give the answers he wanted. So, when the Spartan ambassadors put their question to the god, they were told in no uncertain terms that Demaratus was not Ariston’s child (Hdt. 6.61.1, 63–6). Once Demaratus had been deposed, Cleomenes and the newly ascended Leotychidas both went to Aegina,
the matter of his conjugal arrangements (Hdt. 5.40.1). The Assembly was also involved in settling constitutional disputes relating to the royal houses: the ephors succeeded in convincing Anaxandridas to change his mind only when, along with the Gerousia, they threatened to put the matter before the Assembly (Hdt. 5.40.1). The trial of Cleomenes I’s rival king Demaratus in 491 concluded with a vote “by the Spartiates” to consult Delphi about his legitimacy (Hdt. 6.66.1). And at the end of the
enrichment and enhancement of Sparta’s prestige (Diod. Sic. 11.50.2) – a salutary reminder that Spartan public opinion was far from monolithic. In the later 470s, Spartans had to deal with problems on several fronts. Twice the Tegeans fought the Spartans, once in alliance with Argos, once with the support of almost all the Arcadians (Hdt. 9.35.2). Themistocles may have been at work here, since, after his enemies had succeeded in ostracizing him from Athens, he took up residence in newly
spear. From early on, all Spartan warriors were famous for growing their hair long – the mark of a free man, as Aristotle (Rhet. 1367a) would have it. But evidence for the other elements in the ancient, and modern, image of the Spartan soldier as an almost faceless unit in a massive killing machine comes from later in the century. The large circular shield that gave the hoplite his name was the characteristic armament of the Greek heavy infantry in the Classical period. Like their counterparts in