By All Means Necessary: How China's Resource Quest is Changing the World
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In the past thirty years, China has transformed from an impoverished country where peasants comprised the largest portion of the populace to an economic power with an expanding middle class and more megacities than anywhere else on earth. This remarkable transformation has required, and will continue to demand, massive quantities of resources. Like every other major power in modern history, China is looking outward to find them.
In By All Means Necessary, Elizabeth C. Economy and Michael Levi explore the unrivaled expansion of the Chinese economy and the global effects of its meteoric growth. China is now engaged in a far-flung quest, hunting around the world for fuel, ores, water, and land for farming, and deploying whatever it needs in the economic, political, and military spheres to secure the resources it requires. Chinese traders and investors buy commodities, with consequences for economies, people, and the environment around the world. Meanwhile the Chinese military aspires to secure sea lanes, and Chinese diplomats struggle to protect the country's interests abroad. And just as surely as China's pursuit of natural resources is changing the world--restructuring markets, pushing up commodity prices, transforming resource-rich economies through investment and trade--it is also changing China itself. As Chinese corporations increasingly venture abroad, they must navigate various political regimes, participate in international markets, and adopt foreign standards and practices, which can lead to wide-reaching social and political ramifications at home.
Clear, authoritative, and provocative, By All Means Necessary is a sweeping account of where China's pursuit of raw materials may take the country in the coming years and what the consequences will be--not just for China, but for the whole world.
By All Means Necessary The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher dedicated to being a resource for its members, government officials, business executives, journalists, educators and students, civic and religious leaders, and other interested citizens in order to help them better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other countries. Founded in 1921, CFR carries out its
Metals, 121 global commodity prices, China’s impact on, 1, 5, 8–9, 21, 24–32, 193, 195, 197, 204. See also specific commodities Global Crossing, 133 Global Reporting Initiative, 106, 201, 231n29 Gobi Desert, 69, 160 “going out” strategy (zou chuqu), 48–50, 52, 115 grain demand and production in China, 13–14, 21–22, 30–31, 192, 213n33 Great Britain, 2, 14–15, 117, 149 Great Leap Forward, 18–19 Green Watershed (NGO), 113–114 Group of 20 (G20), 196 Guangxi regions (China), 14 Guinea
system.73 Within China, smaller steel mills, previously disadvantaged relative to their larger competitors, have welcomed the change; larger producers, now with even greater potential market power, have regularly suggested that a return to annual contract talks would make sense.74 Similar sentiments have come from outside China; Posco, the Korean leader, has called for a return to annual contract prices, without success thus far.75 Meanwhile volatile prices have increased the appeal to Chinese
conflicts within the region. The Brahmaputra If one does want to find potential water wars involving China, the natural place to look is its face-off with India over the Brahmaputra. Yet this is perhaps the best example of a situation where the substantive conflict is almost entirely an invention of the participants, and transparency could go a long way to making the prospect of resource conflict go away. China and India are both rising powers; they also share an old and complex security
those—such as EU and NATO efforts—are exclusive to members of the organizations. But others, such as CTF-151, which at various times has been led by the Thai, Danish, South Korean, Pakistani, Turkish, and U.S. navies, are not.32 China has also declined requests to join collective command efforts to patrol the International Recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC), the preferred passageway for ships traveling through the Gulf of Aden. Defense Ministry officials have, however, said that China is