Basic Chinese: A Grammar and Workbook (Grammar Workbooks)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
‘Very well structured and clearly explained’ – Dr Kan Qian, The Open University, UK
Basic Chinese introduces the essentials of Chinese syntax. Each of the 25 units deals with a particular grammatical point and provides associated exercises. Features include:
- a clear, accessible format
- many useful language examples
- jargon-free explanations of grammar
- ample drills and exercises
- a full key to exercises.
All Chinese entries are presented in both Pinyin romanization and Chinese characters, and are accompanied, in most cases, by English translations to facilitate self-tuition as well as classroom teaching in both spoken and written Chinese.
Basic Chinese is designed for students new to the language. Together with its sister volume, Intermediate Chinese, it forms a compendium of the essentials of Chinese syntax.
different uses of questions: jh in statements and wi mfi le jh ping jij I have bought a few bottles of wine. nh mfi le jh ping jij How many bottles of wine have you bought? 7 Indefinite plurals D These noun phrases, being indeﬁnite plurals, naturally occur after the verb in the object position: nèi tian | wi jiàn dào le bùshfo péngyou I met quite a few friends that day. nèi tian | wi pèng dào le xjdud wèntí I came across many problems that day. These indeﬁnite plurals can be moved to a
shí(hou) ‘when . . . /while . . .’; and . . . ( ) (zhc) zhdng ‘during’: san gè xcngqc yh qián huí jia zhc qián lifng gè yuè qián 140 three weeks ago/three weeks before before going home two months ago/two months before wj fbn zhdng zhc hòu ﬁve minutes later/in ﬁve minutes’ time/after ﬁve minutes chc wfnfàn yh hòu after (eating) supper yc nián hòu a year later/in a year’s time/after a year cfi cfoméi de shíhou while picking strawberries wimen qù zhdngguó when we went to de shíhou China kàn she
action past experience an action in progress a continuous state resulting from an action/an accompanying action an action/a state which has just started an action which is to be continued an action/a state which is gradually changing into non-action or a quieter state B le indicates that the action of the verb has been completed. It therefore often occurs in narrative sentences, where the marking of an action as being completed becomes important. However, a verb with le is naturally followed by
xiàqù and xiàlái as directional complements, see Unit 21. Exercise 15.1 Add D zhe, le, guo or zài to the sentences below to complete the translation of the English in each case. In some cases there may be more than one possibility: 1 ta chànggb He is singing. 2 3 4 5 6 160 yéye dài yc fù yfnjìng Grandpa is wearing a pair of glasses. wi jiàn dà xióngmao I have seen a giant panda. ta xiào shudhuà She spoke smiling. ta bbi bbibao qù pá shan He went climbing with a rucksack on his back. wi die
3 Those three Chinese (persons) are very rich. ( yiuqián ‘rich (lit. to have money)’) 4 Your father’s book is really useful. ( yiuyòng ‘useful (lit. to have use)’) 5 This method is truly effective. ( fangff ‘method’; yiuxiào ‘effective (lit. to have effect)’) 6 That cake of yours is really tasty. This cup of coffee is really nice. ( hfochc/ hfohb ‘tasty, nice (lit. good to eat/good to drink)’) 7 That jumper of my younger sister is beautiful. ( hfokàn ‘pleasant to the eye’) 8 That song is pleasant