1421: The Year China Discovered America

1421: The Year China Discovered America

Gavin Menzies

Language: English

Pages: 672

ISBN: 0061564893

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

On March 8, 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen set sail from China to "proceed all the way to the ends of the earth to collect tribute from the barbarians beyond the seas." When the fleet returned home in October 1423, the emperor had fallen, leaving China in political and economic chaos. The great ships were left to rot at their moorings and the records of their journeys were destroyed. Lost in the long, self-imposed isolation that followed was the knowledge that Chinese ships had reached America seventy years before Columbus and had circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan. And they colonized America before the Europeans, transplanting the principal economic crops that have since fed and clothed the world.

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Pope’s letter, 1448, about Chinese/Asians in Greenland ‘about 30 years ago’, viz. c.1421/2; Chinese DNA in Greenland people of Hvalsey Columbus’s records (1477), ‘70 years before, people from Cathay in Orient’ (Greenland) Fra Mauro’s map, ‘about the year 1420’, ship or junk from India Zhu Di coins (1403–24) found in wrecks dated by hull wood, for example Pandanan Chinese star charts (Wu Pei Chi) dated by precession of Polaris to 1420 ± 20 years Mao Kun map, Chinese dated 1422, shows

author submits that only one explanation is consistent with Verrazzano’s sightings – the Shutesbury Stone, the carved horse’s head and the balanced rocks at Savoy, Upton, Prospect Park, South Peabody, Royalston, Barr, Cape Ann, Athol (and six more), the rice and the Chinese chickens – and that is that Chinese junks manned in part by Theravada Buddhists sailed up the Connecticut and Taunton Rivers and created the settlements Verrazzano came across. This explanation accords with Professor de la

thousands of miles upriver; and Patagonia/Bolivia – again, thousands of miles upriver. To reach these places thousands of miles apart in different hemispheres at about the same time, not only would different fleets be required, but huge fleets: the Atlantic fleet sailing to Greenland, the Yucatán, the Caribbean, the Amazon and Patagonia; the Pacific fleet from Alaska right down the coast to South America. The author contends that the only huge fleets which sailed to North and South America

other mementoes. A carved stone similar to the one erected by Zheng He on the estuary of the Yangtze stands at Galle, near Dondra Head in southern Sri Lanka. Inscribed in Chinese, Tamil and Persian, it extols the virtues of Hinduism (the local religion), Buddhism (Emperor Zhu Di’s faith) and Islam (the religion of most Indian rulers in the early fifteenth century). There are other similar stones near Cochin and Calicut. I wondered if a carved stone might have been erected here. The Chinese were

In that era, Venice, the base of Fra Mauro, the Venetian cartographer working for the Portuguese government, led the West in mapmaking. As I expected, Venetian and Catalan charts (Catalonia was then part of the Kingdom of Aragon; the Catalans were redoubtable seafarers) drawn before 1423 disclosed nothing new in the western Atlantic, but a chart dated 1424 and signed by the Venetian cartographer Zuane Pizzigano was an entirely different matter. The Pizzigano chart was rediscovered some seventy

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